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Before we talk about the technology of leather we should mention LeatherNaturally! which is at the interface of technology and marketing with the intention to play a major role in promoting leather. Supported by top tanners, chemical supply companies and others in the industry we talk to companies and NGOs to ensure they understand the true facts about leather rather than get tied up with the negative promotional jargon pushed out by single issue absolutists from an animal rights point of view. Just as importantly we work to help modern designers, r retailers and consumes to better understand the inherent values in leather and how to exploit its natural benefits, longevity and sustainability. Find out more at LeatherNaturally.org
The Mission is:
Leather Naturally promotes the use of globally-manufactured sustainable leather and seeks to inspire and inform designers, creators, and consumers about it’s beauty, quality and versatility.
And in summary here are the objectives of LeatherNaturally!
To educate the buying public, fashion designers and finished product manufacturers about the use, beauty, versatility and sustainability of leather. We want to make the point that responsibly produced leather is one of the best materials from a sustainability point of view.
To educate the public on the shortcomings of synthetic materials made from petrochemical processes which leave a huge carbon footprint on the environment and like radioactive materials, take hundreds if not thousands of years to biodegrade themselves into Mother Earth
To defend the leather industry against the criticism leveled against the use of animal skins and the alleged dangers caused by cattle ranching and tanning industry to the environment
Leather technology is in a period of change. For most of the 20th century chrome tanning has been dominant and used for around 90% of all leather as horse transport was replaced by the combustion engine and sole leather by rubber and plastics types. It looks hard to find a really good alternate to chromium and we can expect it to remain important for a long time. The biggest development has pushed non chromium and non vegetable leathers into the automobile industry and in some instances have been found to have better hydro-thermal stability. But non chrome leather with one or two exceptions is generally not as good as chromium and cannot yet match its technological performance. I am a fan of Titanium and have seen some excellent products.
Yet as any technology passes on to a new level you have many options, some good and some bad, being developed at the same time and often it takes twenty or thirty years for a new dominant process to emerge. So what is happening in leather right now is quite typical.
All this is happenig at a time when environmetal issues and compliance are ever more important, when REACH has added to the complexity along with other regulations. However as a result by 2015 the world’s top tanneries who make the big volumes of leather are some of the finest imaginable in terms of the use of energy, water and materials and the recycling or re-use of all materials. Zero solid waste and recyling water have become far more frequent and we can look forward to tanneries which are working on true cradle to cradle approaches.
So getting the mix of your innovation right is important. You have to balance long term fundamental improvements with short term seasonal ones of colour and fashion. You have to decide where to strike a balance between clever technology and what the final customer can see as a real feature and benefit.And you do need innovation as textiles, synthetic leather types and plastics are all encroaching and getting better aesthetically and technically.
Technology means considering all these things:
end of life
efficiency of process
and in all this what you do in house and what you source externally in terms of skills, technologies and competences you need
Getting your tecnhology strategy right is a very big deal.
At times of recession innovation is even more important. Remember when thinking about innovation you can have innovation in various forms:
marketing innovation (to do with business models, service elements)
Many of my customers do not think about the first and confuse the last two. They like to go for the breakthrough product that will change the world and earn them a fortune when in fact they have little chance of being able to make such a product andno cahnce at all of getting it to market, at any price. Most tanners, but of course not all, need to work on process innovation.
When tanners do work on new products they tend to romance the product too much and forget about any needs the final consumer might have. As one of my clients in the brands and retailers sector tells me tanners need to think of:
Real innovation that people are willing to pay more money for versus marketing verbiage with no real substance
It is always a shame when big money has been spent creating cleverproducts with no sell through value to the consumer
Today leather increasingly have to meet measurable performance targets. Mostly these have to do with what we might call health and safety for example checking that banned substances are not present. Other things are relevant also such as ensuring colour and thickness consistency from pack to pack or meeting water resistance targets,
Only when you are sure that all these things are measured and met can you start to think about the evolution of marketing strategy and moves into innovation.
Sustainability and Cradle to Cradle
The industry is spending huge sums of money on dealing with environmental issues, on compliance, and trying to deal with future worries over landfill. In some places I have been recently like India and Pakistan inefficient or non-existent treatment in the past has done serious long term damage to the ground water and even the health of the general population. Some places in Pakistan, Kanpur and in Bangladesh still remain problematic but even in these countries as in most of the rest of the world it is only a tiny proportion of the total volume of leather made which is associated with bad environmental and CSR policies. Nevertheless the leather is committed to bring this to an end, but often it is difficult as bad management occurs because of dysfunctional government as well as bad managers and owners.
At the other end of the scale the huge volume of shoes going into landfill is not sustainable and we must ask ourselves questions about the proper length of life of a product made of leather and what should happen to the product at that time.
From lifecycle to recycle and beyond
Really far thinking companies take this one step further and adopt the cradle to cradle philosophy (Cradle to Cradle: Remaking the Way We Make Things by William McDonough and Michael Braungart) which rejects the production concepts born of the industrial revolution. These embodied abusing the planet’s resources through excessive consumption and thoughtless waste and designing products which used up what we now to be scarce resources with one time, one way use. Cradle to grave now covers putting toxic waste into landfill and telling ourselves they are at least safe. According to Cradle to Cradle products have biological and technical nutrients within them and at the end of life of a product these need to be separated out for proper re-use. The biological elements can returned to the land as the leaves fall from the trees and the chemical elements should be extracted for correct re-use. “Safe landfill” should not be an option nor should re-cycling which involves leaving significant or pertinent technical content in the material. Using chrome leather pieces out of old leather products for running tracks may be well intentioned, but it is not right. Traditional re-cycling may be better than waste but it reduces our guilt rather than removes it.
This is the approach I am commtited to and is the subject of reseach projects in the Leather Futures Research Group at the University of Northampton